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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities-- not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches - human geography and physical geography.

Friday, February 13, 2009

Jnr. Cert. Revision Sheets

Geography Mid Term Revision

“Large scale tourism can cause major problems for busy tourist regions”.
Describe THREE problems associated with large scale tourism.
(12 mark JC Higher Level Question 2005)

Explain how any TWO of the following influence population densities throughout the world.
Relief (shape of the land surface)
Mineral Wealth
(8 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2005)

Describe TWO problems caused by low population density which affect the country labelled x (Mali) on the map.
(8 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2005)

Describe TWO ways in which rocks may be of economic use to people.
(12 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2005)

a) Name one example of organised international migration.
b) Describe two reasons why this organised migration took place.
c) Describe one long term effect of this migration in the destination country.
(10 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2005)

Explain TWO ways in which war and spending of money on arms have prevented economic development in ONE named country of your choice.
(10 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2005)

a) Suggest one reason why there is low population density in the West of Ireland
b) Suggest one reason why there is high population density in the Southern and Eastern region of Ireland.
(4 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2004)

8 a) Describe and explain one reason for the high population density in the Southern and Eastern region of Ireland.
b) Describe and explain one reason for the low population density in the West of Ireland.
(12 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2004)

9. Describe TWO problems that might arise in an area of high population density OR an area of low population density.
(10 mark question JC Higher Level Question 2004)

10. Answer question 1, 4, 5, and 7 on page 174 of your book.

Coastal Processes Summary Sheet
Waves are caused by the _____ passing over the surface of the sea causing the water to move. The size of the wave will increase with ___ _______ __ ___ ______and the length of the sea (called_______) over which it passes
The foamy, white water that rushes towards the shore is called the ______ and the water that moves back down the shore is called the________. The swash and backwash _____________________________________________________________.
Constructive waves are waves that occur during _______ ______. They have limited _______ and most of it is used by the swash to transport material and _______ material.
Destructive waves are waves that occur in _______ ______. They have much more energy and have very strong __________. There is a lot of erosion.
Constructive Waves

Destructive Waves

Coastal Erosion: The coast is eroded by __________ Waves





Features of Coastal (sea) Erosion
Cliffs, E.g. __________________


Bays and Headlands, E.g. ____________________

Sea Cave, Blowholes, Sea Arch, Sea Stack and Sea Stump. E.g. ____________

Transportation by the Sea is by a process of ___________ _________


Features of Coastal (sea) Deposition
Beaches & Storm Beaches

Sand Dunes

Sand Spits

Bars and Lagoons


Human Activities Coastal Protection

As a flows from its source to its mouth, its gradient (slope) and valley shape change. There are 3 different stages in the course of a river, i.e.:
* _______________________________
* _______________________________
* _______________________________

Life cycle of a River

River terms:

The high ground that separates one river basin from another.


The point at which a tributary joins the river

A small stream or river that joins up with a larger one


All the material being carried by the river
Flood plain

The Life Cycle of a River
Like humans, rivers go through a life cycle: Youthful stage à Mature stage à Old-stage
The Youthful stage (Upper course)
The river begins its life-cycle in the _________________. Its aim is to reach the lake or sea as quickly as possible so it makes its way downwards by means of v_________
e____________. Both its vol____ and load are small. Vertical erosion loosens material along the ____ of the river.

A river erodes in four ways or processes.
The amount of erosion that takes place depends on:
Landforms/ Features of the Youthful stage
V shaped valleys
Interlocking spurs

V-Shaped Valleys
The river is starting its life-cycle in the mountains. Both the volume of the water and the ______ are small. The river wants to enter the lake or sea as quickly as possible so it starts to erode _____wards forming a ___ shaped valley, e.g. the youthful stage of the river Liffey.
Formation of a V-shaped valley

Interlocking Spurs
In the ____________ stage the river does not have enough power to go through obstacles, e.g. g______e so it goes ___________ them forming interlocking _________. Interlocking _________ are areas of high ground that jut out from _______ sides of a young __________ valley and ______ into one another like pieces of a jigsaw.
V-Shaped valley with interlocking spurs

Waterfalls occur when the river meets a layer of ________ rock and soft rock. The ______ rock will be eroded much faster than the _______ rock causing the riverbed to steepened forming a __________. The force of the falling w_______ cuts a hole called a _________ pool. The falling ________ also cuts under the ____________ to form a over_____. This eventually ___________. This process repeats itself and the waterfall gradually __________ upstream. A good example of a ____________ the Torc Waterfall in ________________.
Formation of a Waterfall

Landforms/ Features of the Mature stage
In the ________ stage the river’s _________ has increased because many _________ have joined it. In this stage _________ erosion takes place. In the Mature Stage of a river, ____________ erosion leads to the following features:
Ox-box lakes
Meanders are c_______ or loops that develop along the course of a river. Meanders are formed by __________ on the outer bank and ___________ on the inner bank. Meanders appear as bends along the river’s course. As the river flows around a slight _______, the water on the ____side bank flows more __________ and has ________ power to erode the river bank. The water on the ________ bank flows more s_________, and as a result the river will ___________ some of its load there. As the river flows downstream the meanders become more ______________. Meanders are found along the course of the R. Shannon.
Ox-Bow Lakes
An Ox bow lake is a ______________ shaped lake found on the _________ __________
of a river. It is a feature of e__________ and d___________. Ox bow lakes develop from well-developed __________. Erosion continues to take place on the _______ bank and the _______ of the land becomes narrower. During a __________ the river may _____ through it. The river now flows __________ ___________ instead of following the meander. As the sediment is d________ed, it seals both ends of the abandoned meander loop – thus forming an ____ ______ lake. Example – R. _________.
Formation of an Ox Bow Lake

Landforms/ Features of the Old stage
The river is now entering the end of its life c________. All the eroded and transported material is now _____________ along the bed and banks of the river. Two features of the old stage include:
Levees are _________ ________ ___ ____________ found along the banks of some rivers in their ____ stage. The river is now flowing over f____ land. The river _______
material on its bed causing the water to rise. Sometimes this may cause the river to o___f_____ depositing its material on its_______. These banks are ________ and are often reinforced to prevent ________and damaging low-lying land, e.g. R. S_____.

Levees develop in the old stage of a river

Deltas are formed at the _______ ___ _ _______. When a river flows into the sea, it ____
Its speed and d________ its load of sediment. If the tides and currents are not strong enough to carry it all out to sea, the deposits begin to _______ ___. The m______ of the river soon becomes clogged and the river breaks up into smaller _________ called dis____________. Example –Mouth of the R. N_____.

River Transportation
A river is an agent of t_________t, carrying material from upland to ___land areas. It can do so in the following ways:
à Rolling _______________________________________________________________
à Bouncing _____________________________________________________________
à Suspension ___________________________________________________________
à Solution ______________________________________________________________
River transportation

Case study of a river – The Shannon

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